東エルサレム「神殿の丘」に対する主権をイスラエルに譲渡することが米国中東和平案の隠された目的 国際法違反

【国際法の解釈】
「誰でも『神殿の丘』(al-Haram al-Sharif)を訪問できるが、礼拝できるのはムスリムだけである」。

【米国、イスラエル、UAE、バハレーンが調印した協定書】
「全てのムスリムはアル・アクサー・モスクを訪問し礼拝することができ、その他のエルサレムの聖地は、全ての信仰者の平和的礼拝のため解放されるべきである」。

【注目点】
(1)「神殿の丘」が、「アル・アクサー・モスク」と「その他のエルサレムの聖地」に分解されている。

(2)ムスリム以外の異教徒が、モスクの外側ならば敷地内のどこでも平和的に礼拝することができると変更されている。

(3)しばらく前から、ユダヤ教の極右が「神殿の丘」通行権を主張し、ヨルダン政府が任命している門番が、理由があって門を閉めている日に、警察が門をこじ開けて中に入る示威行動を繰り返し、地元パレスチナ人との間で摩擦が続いている。

(4)「神殿の丘」の内部に、古いユダヤ教の遺跡があるとされており、ユダヤ教徒側から発掘調査と神殿の再建を求める声が従来からある。

(5)米国の和平案・協定書では、「神殿の丘」の主権に関して明確に触れられていないが、ムスリムの主権がモスクだけに矮小化されているように読める。国際法の解釈が上記1、2に変更されると、「エルサレムのその他の聖地」(=モスク以外の領域)の主権が、事実上ムスリム(実務上ヨルダン)からイスラエルに移行する可能性も想定される。

(6)上記5が実現すると、3が常態化し、4が違法でなくなるので、「神殿の丘」の形が変わる。

(7)中東戦争をしていたとき、UAEとバハレーンはどちらも貧しい漁村であり、過去の長い歴史で両国がイスラム世界の指導的地位にあったことはないのに、国際法解釈の変更を、地元ムスリムとヨルダン政府の頭越しに、イスラエルと勝手に合意した。



Israel normalisation may partition Al-Aqsa: Analysts

A clause in the UAE-Bahrain accords with Israel leaves 'door wide open' to Jewish prayer at holy site, analysts say.
by Mersiha Gadzo
14 Sep 2020 01:59 GMT
https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/09/israel-normalisation-partition-al-aqsa-mosque-analysts-200913185257276.html

A statement embedded in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Bahrain normalisation agreements with Israel, brokered by the United States, may lead to the division of the Al-Aqsa compound because it violates the status quo, analysts say.

According to a report by NGO Terrestrial Jerusalem (TJ), the statements mark a "radical change in the status quo" and have "far-reaching and potentially explosive ramifications".

Under the status quo affirmed in 1967, only Muslims can pray within al-Haram al-Sharif, also known as the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, which consists of 14 hectares (35 acres).

Non-Muslims can visit but cannot pray at the site. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu affirmed this status quo in a formal declaration in 2015.

However, a clause included in the recent accords between Israel and Gulf Arab states indicates this may no longer be the case.

According to the joint statement between the US, Israel, and the UAE released on August 13 by US President Donald Trump: "As set forth in the Vision of Peace, all Muslims who come in peace may visit and pray at the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Jerusalem's other holy sites should remain open for peaceful worshippers of all faiths."

Bahrain follows UAE to normalise ties with Israel

But Israel defines Al-Aqsa as the structure of the one mosque, as does the statement, the TJ report clarified.

"According to Israel [and apparently to the United States], anything on the Mount that is not the structure of the mosque is defined as 'one of Jerusalem's other holy sites' and open to prayer by all - including Jews," the report said.

"This choice of terminology is neither random nor a misstep, and cannot [be] seen as anything but an intentional albeit surreptitious attempt to leave the door wide open to Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount, thereby radically changing the status quo."

The same statement was repeated in the accord with Bahrain, announced on Friday.

Joint Statement of the United States, the Kingdom of Bahrain, and the State of Israel pic.twitter.com/xMquRkGtpM
— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) September 11, 2020

Khaled Zabarqa, a Palestinian lawyer specialising in Al-Aqsa and Jerusalem affairs, told Al Jazeera the statement "very clearly says the mosque is not under Muslim sovereignty".

"When the UAE accepted such a clause, it agrees and gives a green light for Israeli sovereignty over Al-Aqsa Mosque," Zabarqa said.

"It's a clear and massive violation for the international and legal status quo of Al-Aqsa Mosque [conceived] after the occupation of Jerusalem in 1967, which says everything inside the walls is under Jordanian custody."

'This is not innocent'

Palestinians have long been concerned over possible attempts to partition the holy mosque, as was the case with Hebron's Ibrahimi Mosque(関連記事その2).

Over the years, there has been a growing Temple Movement, mostly led by "the extreme nationalistic religious Jewish right" that seeks to change the status quo, the report by TJ said.

Some call for Jewish prayer on the holy compound, while others aim to build the Third Temple over the ruins of the Dome of the Rock, which according to messianic belief would usher the coming of the messiah.

The Israeli NGO Ir Amim has published numerous reports over the years warning of this once-fringe group, which today is part of the political and religious mainstream and benefits from close ties with Israeli authorities.

These activists believe allowing Jewish prayer at the compound and dividing the holy site between Muslims and Jews would be a step towards asserting sovereignty, and eventually attaining their ultimate goal of building the temple.

In recent years, an increasing number of Jewish visitors have been attempting to pray at the site in violation of the status quo.

Daniel Seidemann, an Israeli attorney specialising in the geopolitics of Jerusalem, told Al Jazeera he is "deeply concerned about what is happening".

"What we're witnessing in Jerusalem is the ascendency of the religious factions that weaponise religion. We're on a trajectory that will lead us to a conflagration.

"We know these clauses are worked out together, every single word in a joint team of US and Israel. The transition from the term Haram al-Sharif to the term Al-Aqsa Mosque is not an accident," Seidemann said.

'Written with malice'

A more blatant statement was included in Trump's "deal of the century" plan for the Middle East, unveiled in late January alongside Netanyahu at the White House.

Jared Kushner, Trump's son-in-law and senior adviser, has been the main point person on the proposal, and Ron Dermer, Israel's ambassador to the US, has been linked to the wording of the deal.

The plan stipulated "the status quo at the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif should be continued", but in the following sentence it also said: "People of every faith should be permitted to pray on the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif."

The clause was met with controversy, prompting US Ambassador to Israel David Friedman to walk it back at a press briefing on January 28. "There's nothing in the plan that would impose any alteration of the status quo that's not subject to agreement of all parties," he said.

A senior US official - familiar with both the parties and the issues - told Al Jazeera he had "no doubts that the language in the Israel-UAE statement was written with malice of forethought by the Israeli side, without a clear understanding from the Emirates, and with the complicity of a clueless American team".

"The rapid walk-back by Friedman of what was in the Trump plan attests to this: Dermer likely inserted it, Kushner didn't have a clue," the official said, speaking on condition of anonymity.

"The fact that it was Friedman who walked it back, rather than the White House, also means the Trump plan language is still official and determining if push comes to shove... Even if the Kushner-Friedman dolts understand the ramifications, it is clear they don't care."

Tension at Al-Aqsa compound as Muslim, Jewish festivals overlap

Eddie Vasquez, senior adviser and spokesperson at the US Department of State, in an email to Al Jazeera referred to a fact sheet published after the "deal of the century" was released, which said the status quo will be preserved.

"All Muslims are welcome to peacefully visit Al-Aqsa Mosque," one of the points said. But there was no clarification as to why the term Al-Aqsa Mosque was used instead of Haram al-Sharif in the accords with the UAE and Bahrain.

'Israeli sovereignty over Al-Aqsa'

The normalisation agreements come as Israeli authorities recently installed loudspeakers on the eastern and western side of the Al-Aqsa compound last week, without the permission of the Waqf.

The holy compound is administered by the Islamic Waqf, seated in Jordan. According to the status quo, Israel is only responsible for security outside of the gates.

"The Israel police said it's for security reasons, but we don't really see this security reason," Omar Kiswani, director of the Al-Aqsa compound, told Al Jazeera.

"We consider this action an attempt to impose control over the Al-Aqsa Mosque and to undermine the Waqf's role in the mosque," Kiswani said.

Zabarqa said Jordan, as the custodian of the site, has "no power to deal with the occupation [authorities]".

"I believe Jordan needs to make a change and make new allies such as with Turkey. It has to use the financial and diplomatic relations with Israel as a card to put pressure, but it seems it's weak enough to stand beside the Americans," Zabarqa said.

TJ noted in its report that there was no mention in the accord of the Waqf and its autonomous role.

"The Muslim claims to Haram al-Sharif/Al-Aqsa are being transformed from one of proprietorship to that of 'welcome guest' with the right to visit and pray at Al-Aqsa," it said.

'A landmine'

Zabarqa said the clause is "groundbreaking for the Israeli-American narrative" and believes "the UAE accepted to be the spearhead of it".

Zabarqa noted in 2014 that the UAE was involved in the transfer of more than 30 buildings to illegal Israeli settlers in Silwan in occupied East Jerusalem.

"This shows us the clear role the Emirates play in changing the status quo term to another one that recognises Israel sovereignty over Al-Aqsa," Zabarqa said.

Seidemann said when the Emiratis and Bahrainis take part in the ceremony on Tuesday hosted by Trump at the White House to sign a "historic declaration of peace" with Israel, they should demand clarification to be assured the status quo is intact.

"All you would need is for Kushner and Netanyahu to say: 'I continue to believe what I said in 2015.' They've been asked to do that for the last two weeks, they haven't done that. This is not innocent," Seidemann said.

"This is a landmine the Trump administration and Netanyahu are leaving for the next administration, the next Israeli government. They're tinkering with Haram al-Sharif/Al-Aqsa/Temple Mount. It will light a fuse," Seidemann said.

"The fuse may be a long fuse, but it will blow up and it's not too late to prevent it from blowing up."



エルサレムの国際的地位に関する国連報告書(PDF)
https://www.un.org/unispal/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/The-Status-of-Jerusalem-Engish-199708.pdf

国際法違反の敷地に立ち入る示威行動をするユダヤ人極右の入植者たちの映像
https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=+%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%B7%D9%86%D9%8A%D9%86+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AC%D8%AF+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%82%D8%B5%D9%89
2020年9月17日の映像
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJnJo63QsjE

・・・イスラエルは国際法違反の軍事占領をしておきながら、1円の賠償金も支払わずに(←昨日私が指摘したように)、土地の主権を横取りするという実に腹黒い企画。

エルサレム問題を真正面から取り組むと、1秒で論破され議論が持たないので、「今からエルサレム問題について交渉を開始します」と宣言しない方法を、米国とユダヤは必死に編み出した。

「世界中の人が自由に礼拝、観光できるようになって良かったね」と日本人は思いがちだが、そういう安っぽい話ではない

世界中がコロナ騒ぎに翻弄されているから、エルサレム問題が無視されている。「ただの風邪」に過ぎないコロナで馬鹿騒ぎする理由がわかろうというもの。

コロナだ、外出規制だ、テレワークだ、米国全土で暴動だ、放火だ、像が倒された、ベイルート港で大爆発だ、ベラルーシで民主化運動だ、中国が悪いと次々にニュースが発生し、世間が右に左に振り回されている。生活が破綻した人もいるだろう。

ところが、ふと気付いてみれば、イスラエル、ユダヤだけは「失う物なしで、無償で全てを手に入れる」。

本来ならば自分でかなりの汗を掻いて面倒な外交交渉をまとめ上げなければならないが、イスラエルの場合、面倒な部分は全て米国の外交官が肩代わりしている。ユダヤ人ほど気楽で楽しい人生はない。

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