Stuxnetワームをイランのウラン濃縮施設に仕込んだのはオランダのスパイ

事件当初すぐ指摘されたのは米国とイスラエルの情報機関だが、ドイツとオランダも関係していたことが明らかになった。特に、ウラン濃縮施設のシステムにUSBを差し込んだのはオランダのスパイだった。

関連記事23

(末尾の記事を2019/09/08追記)
イスラエルはStuxnetを、買いたい顧客には誰にでも販売している。



Secret Dutch Mole Aided Stuxnet Virus Attack on Iranian Nuclear Program – Reports
01:11 03.09.2019
https://sputniknews.com/military/201909031076708135-secret-dutch-mole-stuxnet-virus-attack--iranian-nuclear-program/

An Iranian mole recruited by Dutch intelligence was reportedly instrumental in helping the US and Israel install the Stuxnet virus on Iran's nuclear centrifuges in Natantz, according to sources.

According to a report by Yahoo News, the mole was an Iranian engineer recruited by the Dutch intelligence agency AIVD at the behest of the CIA and the Mossad, who provided critical data that helped the US developers target their cyberattack code to the systems at Natantz.

The mole either inserted a USB flash drive with the virus onto Iranian systems, as none of the systems were connected to the internet, or manipulated another person into doing so. The Stuxnet virus ruined around 2,000 Iranian centrifuges, delaying its uranium enrichment plans by as many as a couple of years, according to analysts. Various reports suggested that the Stuxnet virus had been developed by US and Israeli intelligence services to sabotage Iran's nuclear programme. No country, however, has taken responsibility, neither for creating the virus nor for carrying out the attack.

The report cited four intelligence sources who said that the Netherlands and Germany also played a role in the development of the plan along with the US and Israel. Another country believed to be involved is France, while UK intelligence also allegedly played a role. It has been previously reported that Germany contributed technical specifications and knowledge about the industrial control systems made by the German firm Siemens, which were used in the Iranian plant to control the spinning centrifuges. The report said that France is believed to have provided similar intelligence.

The Dutch mole, according to the report, was in a unique position to deliver key intelligence about Iran’s activities to procure equipment from Europe for its nuclear program and about the centrifuges themselves, as the centrifuges at Natantz were based on designs that were reportedly stolen from a Dutch company in the 1970s by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan, who used them for Pakistan’s nuclear program.

Later rounds of cyberattacks on Iran's nuclear program did not require the operative's physical presence in Natantz, but his initial intelligence and physical presence provided the basis for Stuxnet's success. However, an important consequence of the Dutch operative eventually losing access to Natantz was that it may have been a factor that led the Mossad, against US advice, to reportedly act more aggressively with the Stuxnet virus in later stages.

It remains unclear why the information about the mole was made public now. Months after Stuxnet’s discovery, a website in Israel indicated that Iran had arrested and possibly executed several workers at Natantz under the belief that they helped get the malware onto systems at the plant. Two of the intelligence sources who spoke with Yahoo News indicated that there indeed had been loss of life over the Stuxnet program, but didn’t say whether this included the Dutch mole.

Neither the Mossad, nor former Mossad agents or US intelligence agents reportedly involved in operations regarding Iran at the time, have confirmed the existence of the Dutch mole so far.



Unseen War: What Message Does Exposure of Alleged EU Involvement in 2007 US-Israeli Cyber Op Send to Iran?
Opinion
https://sputniknews.com/analysis/201909041076717815-unseen-war-what-message-does-exposure-of-eu-involvement-in-2007-us-israeli-cyber-op-send-to-iran/

On 2 September, Yahoo News broke a story about a Dutch mole who planted Stuxnet, a malicious computer worm that damaged around 2,000 centrifuges and undermined the efficiency of the enrichment process at Iran's secretive nuclear plant near the village of Natanz in 2007.

Citing intelligence sources, a Yahoo News report has shed light on the still unacknowledged "Olympic Games Operation" carried out by Israeli and American secret services along with the Netherlands, Germany and, presumably, France and the UK. The purported joint intelligence operation was aimed at thwarting the Islamic Republic's nuclear programme.

While Berlin allegedly contributed technical specifications about the Siemens control systems at the plant, the Dutch intelligence agency, AIVD, reportedly delivered key intelligence about Iran's activities to purchase equipment for the atomic plant in Europe and placed its mole, an Iranian engineer posing as a mechanic, inside Natanz. The plant's control systems were infected with a malicious code through a USB drive.

The installed malware sabotaged the work of the Iranian centrifuges between 2007 and 2008, while in 2009 and 2010 Western intelligence agencies launched a new version of the virus that was eventually discovered by Iranian specialists. On 29 November 2010, then Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad officially announced that computer malware had caused problems at the country's Natanz nuclear plant.

According to the media outlet, the CIA and Mossad did not respond to its inquiries about the secret operation while the Dutch agency AIVD declined to comment.
'Unseen Cyber War Has Been Waged for Years'

Jan Van Benthem, a foreign affairs commentator at Nederlands Dagblad, explains that there were several reasons behind the Netherlands' alleged involvement.

"The ultracentrifuge technique Iran used in the reactor in Bushehr was stolen by the Pakistani nuclear scientist Abdul Qadir Khan from the uranium enrichment plant Urenco, in the Netherlands", the journalist recalls. "The technique was not intended for dual-use but had the potential to enrich uranium to weapons grade levels. Khan became known as 'the father of the Pakistani nuclear bomb'. Later, the technique was sold to and used by other countries, such as North Korea, Iran and Libya".

Apart from this, Dutch intelligence agencies "are well established within the western intelligence community", Van Benthem highlights referring to "Nine Eyes", a group of nations that share intelligence. The group includes Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK, the US – also known as "Five Eyes" – plus Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and Norway.

"Together with Iranian contacts, this made the Dutch involvement feasible", he remarks.

According to the journalist, "Tehran won't like" the report: "What happened in Bushehr so many years ago, is part of the unseen war which has been waged for years now", he highlights.

The purported covert cyber war continues unabated, as The New York Times revealed in late August 2019. According to the media outlet, US Cyber Command attacked an Iranian shipping management database on 20 June, following attacks on two oil tankers in the Gulf of Oman hastily blamed on the Islamic Republic by Washington, something that Tehran vehemently denied.
The Kokuka Courageous, one of two oil tankers targeted in an apparent attack in the Gulf of Oman
© AP Photo / Jon Gambrell
The Kokuka Courageous, one of two oil tankers targeted in an apparent attack in the Gulf of Oman
'Negotiations With Iran Should Continue'

According to Mark Rossini, a former FBI special agent, the Yahoo News disclosure is "an effort to set the story straight regarding the intentions of Iran to obtain nuclear weapons capabilities" amid the increase in tensions between Washington and Tehran.

The former special agent emphasises the report highlights that Washington's European allies have reportedly been involved in the US efforts to derail the Iranian enrichment process from the very beginning.

"European nations were and needed to be involved since they had/have diplomatic and commercial relations with Iran", Rossini explains. "They are our allies and like us, have a moral and ethical obligation to ensure the safety and security of Israel".

The US and its European allies remain at odds following Donald Trump's unilateral withdrawal from the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), commonly known as the Iran nuclear deal, in May 2018. The US applied economic, trade, and military sanctions against the Islamic Republic specifically targeting the country's oil industry.

US denied us means of defense: We built missiles & US complains.

US denied us nuclear fuel: We made it & US complains.

Now US engages in piracy & threats to prevent Iran from selling oil to traditional customers.

Stop nagging @SecPompeo: We will sell oil to any & all buyers.
— Javad Zarif (@JZarif) 31 августа 2019 г.

​In contrast to Washington, the other signatories to the nuclear deal, including the EU, China, France, Russia, the UK, and Germany, have repeatedly pledged commitment to the provisions of the accords.

French President Emmanuel Macron has recently spearheaded an effort to provide Tehran with economic relief from US sanctions. The plan, reportedly discussed by Macron and his American counterpart Donald Trump on the sidelines of the G7 summit, envisages allowing Iran to sell about 700,000 barrels of oil a day and providing the country with a $15 billion loan in exchange for Tehran's coming back to full compliance with the deal.

The Yahoo News report cast a shadow on EU member states actions, raising the question as to how Iran will respond to their involvement in the US-Israeli operation.

"The Iranian Government already knew everything in the article", Rossini presumes. "So, nothing new to them. Of course the article can now be used to have public conversations about 'Western aggression' against Iran, but that is mostly for the Iranian audiences. Negotiations should and will continue".
'The Report is a Warning Shot'

Anthony Tucker-Jones, a former intelligence analyst with nearly 20 years’ experience in the British Intelligence community, believes that "in a way this report is a warning shot: it reminds Iran what western intelligence agencies are jointly capable of".

Following Washington's withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal, Tehran has started scaling back its compliance with the accords. Having ruled out bilateral talks with the US, the Islamic Republic warned the EU that it would further cut its commitment under the 2015 JCPOA unless the bloc saves the Macron-proposed pact by 5 September, according to Reuters.

"Trump’s unilateral stance has derailed the six powers agreement, by trying to extend the US-European restrictions on Iran’s nuclear ambitions to include other military programmes", says Anthony Tucker-Jones. "Iran is refusing bilateral talks with the US, but by threatening Europe, Iran is inevitably pushing the two closer together again".

According to the former intelligence analyst, "Europe remains concerned at the prospect of Iran developing nuclear weapons, which will inevitably upset the balance of power in the Middle East and escalate tensions with Israel".

Tucker-Jones suggests that "for all concerned the cyber-attack was a much better option than air strikes": "The conventional military option always puts shipping in the [Persian] Gulf at risk of retaliation and risks a wider war", he says.

Following the May and June 2019 incidents in the Gulf of Oman, Washington came up with a plan of forming a multinational coalition to ensure the security of navigation throughout the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, the Bab el-Mandeb strait, and the Gulf of Oman. The initiative, dubbed “Sentinel”, envisages that ships traversing the Strait of Hormuz will be provided with cameras and other equipment while some will be escorted by other vessels. The suggested maritime operation follows a series of steps by the US aimed at beefing up its military presence in the region since the spring of 2019.



Stuxnet virus attack details emerge as Israel eases cyber weapons sale restrictions
Published time: 3 Sep, 2019 02:26
https://www.rt.com/news/467837-dutch-stuxnet-israeli-cyber-weapons/

The Stuxnet virus that decimated Iran’s nuclear program was introduced by a Dutch mole working with the CIA and Mossad, intelligence sources claimed, as Israel is shopping its cyber weapons to anyone with cash to buy.

An Iranian engineer was recruited by the Dutch intelligence agency AIVD, acting under the direction of the CIA and Mossad, to infect some 2,000 Iranian nuclear centrifuges with the catastrophic Stuxnet virus, which set that country’s nuclear program back years, according to intelligence sources who spoke to Yahoo News.
Also on rt.com ‘They tried hard, but failed’: Iran foiled all US attempts to carry out cyber-attacks

The mole, who posed as a mechanic, reportedly provided data that was critical to helping the virus’ developers shape their code to specifically target the systems at the Natanz plant where it was ultimately unleashed, then helped get the virus onto the plant computers using a flash drive. One of the sources called him “the most important way of getting the virus into Natanz.”

While the US and Israel were the primary players behind the initiative, designed to cripple but not destroy Iran’s nuclear program in order to force it to the negotiating table, the Netherlands, Germany, and one other country (believed to be France) were also allegedly involved, motivated by Israel’s insistence that Iran was developing a nuclear bomb. In addition to supplying the agent, the Dutch contributed information about the centrifuges, which were based on designs stolen from a Dutch company in the 1970s by a Pakistani scientist.
Read more
Putin on cyberwarfare: Action causes reaction, you don’t like reaction – let’s talk rules Putin on cyberwarfare: Action causes reaction, you don’t like reaction – let’s talk rules Putin on cyberwarfare: Action causes reaction, you don’t like reaction – let’s talk rules

Stuxnet is widely considered to be the first offensive cyberweapon, launching a “digital arms race” after a new and especially virulent version of the code, reportedly deployed by Mossad against US advice, was brought in by unsuspecting contractors who’d been infected elsewhere after the mole lost his access to the plant. That code not only infected other companies the contractors worked with but spread to thousands of computers worldwide, bringing Stuxnet to public attention by June 2010. The exposure of the virus triggered a paradigm shift in cyber operations and set other countries – including the US’ enemies – clamoring for their own cyberweapons.

Since then, Israel has capitalized on its reputation as one of the prime movers behind the deadly (for computers, at least) virus, selling cyber weapons to countries around the world. And it’s about to get much less particular about whom it sells those weapons to, causing significant concern among cybersecurity and human rights groups who have already accused Tel Aviv of marketing insidious spyware like NSO Group’s Pegasus to repressive regimes who use it to spy on opposition politicians, human rights activists and even journalists.
Also on rt.com WhatsApp vulnerability exploited by Israeli spyware targets human rights campaigners

These abuses occurred under a system that required 12 months or longer to approve cyberweapons sales, with matters further complicated by marketing and export license requirements and sales restricted to tightly-vetted allies. Under the new system, purchases can be approved in as little as four months, and more companies will be eligible to obtain the licenses. More ominously, a larger pool of potential buyers will have access to the devastating cyberweapons.

The Israeli Defense Ministry has justified loosening restrictions by insisting Israeli companies need the freedom to remain competitive in the industry, in defiance of a United Nations call for a global moratorium on cyber weapons sales.

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