イスラエル ドゥルーズ派が形式上の尊重ではなく露骨に予算を要求し出した

イスラエルの伝統的なドゥルーズ派懐柔策は、軍の中での昇進の優遇、殉職者の名前を交差点に命名する、殉職者の家庭を大臣が弔問する、独立記念日の式典にドゥルーズ派指導者を招待するといった、極めて形式的な施策の羅列であったため、イスラエル政府にとってはカネがかからず、経済的効率に優れていた。

ところが先週発生したドゥルーズ派デモは、地域インフラの充実を要求した。露骨に国家予算を要求する実利型に変質した。



Israel's Druze can no longer be bought with a pat on the back
Opinion: The protests last week by community leaders were the first step of a new era in which the government of Israel will have to relate seriously to the sector - with budgets and social help and not mere ego stroking
Shakib Ali |
Published: 05.16.20 , 13:55
https://www.ynetnews.com/article/S18nJwK58

The Druze community in Israel goes largely unnoticed until one of its sons dies in defense of the nation.

Only then do the media, the public, IDF officers and government ministers embrace the bereaved families and share in their grief.

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The Druze families in turn will bow their heads, even though the funerals and ceremonies contradict their teachings that the body has no value after a person has died, since the soul has transmigrated and is already reincarnated in a newborn baby.

The community is one of the smallest minorities in Israel - comprising just 1.6% of the general population and 7.6% of Arab society.

Until just two years ago, after the Nation-State Law was passed, with its provision that the country is the state of the Jews, no one talked of the discriminatory action taken by the Israeli government against the Druze.

Tens of thousands marched in the streets in protest, demanding equal rights and treatment entitled to them by the life bond between themselves and the Jews of Israel.

Yet some of those responsible for the current situation are the so-called leaders of the community, or at least those who pretend to lead it.

They remained frozen in place and never took advantage of the democratic tools at their disposal to achieve those equal rights and privileges.

Instead of publicly fighting for what their people deserved, they shamelessly decided not to bite the hand that feeds them.

And in turn, the leaders of the country learned over the years that the so-called Druze leadership simply wants a pat on the back, prestige and to be honored.

For those community leaders, a visit by a minister to their home is as important as the budgets of a school, or a new soccer pitch or better roads.

These personal connections fattened the pockets of Druze businessmen, who made use of them to also promote their relatives and friends.

But they completely disregard the real needs of the community.

From the perspective of Israel's decision-makers, this desire for recognition and lip service has saved the nation millions of shekels.

Troublingly, this is still the nature of the relationship between the community leaders and lawmakers, the latter wrongly believing that this is also what the community wants.

And if some do complain about the lack of equality, the country quickly promotes Druze members of the military, dedicates a roundabout to a fallen soldier or invite them to participate in the annual Independence Day torch-lighting ceremony.

The state could have answered the cries of the Druze by transferring adequate funding for their villages, thereby bridging social gaps 72 years in the making, but instead continue to choose the ego stroking of its so-called leaders.

But last week, the Druze community had finally had enough, and its leaders came out in protest over the lack of financial consideration.

They are frustrated that they cannot provide their residents with basic amenities like schools, roads, parking lots, community centers and public parks, while the government gives them none of the funding they were promised in an attempt to slightly rectify these issues.

Allocation of budgets is usually conditioned on the Druze community's ability to collect at least 80 percent of municipal taxes, without taking into consideration the fact that these are disadvantaged, low socio-economic communities, not to mention the lack of industrial zones that can provide a proper source of income for businesses.

Demonstrations of respect must be replaced by plans for to improve schools, cronyism must be replaced by development budgets and the torch-lighting ceremonies must be replaced by road construction.

Last week's protest was a shot across the bows, hinting at these battles to come.

No more will the Druze community leaders sit on the sidelines.

フランスがコロナ封じ込めできない理由 ドイツと比較して NYT分析

New York Times紙が、ドイツにできたコロナ封じ込めを、なぜフランスほどの大国ができないのかについて分析。

フランスに負けないくらい無様な米国には、他国について評論する資格はない(爆)。



How France Lost the Weapons to Fight a Pandemic

The French once thought of medical gear, like fighter jets, as a national security asset that had to be made at home. But cuts and outsourcing have left them scrambling for masks, tests and even pain pills.

By Norimitsu Onishi and Constant Méheut
May 17, 2020, 4:30 a.m. ET
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/17/world/europe/france-coronavirus.html

PARIS — When President Emmanuel Macron repeatedly declared “war” on the coronavirus in March, he solemnly promised that France would support “front-line” health workers with “the means, the protection.”

The reality was that France was nearly defenseless.

The government’s flip-flopping policies on past pandemics had left a once formidable national stockpile of face masks nearly depleted. Officials had also outsourced the manufacturing capacity to replenish that stockpile to suppliers overseas, despite warnings since the early 2000s about the rising risks of global pandemics.

That has left France — unlike Germany, its rival for European leadership — dependent on foreign factories and painfully unable to ramp up domestic production of face masks, test kits, ventilators and even the thermometers and over-the-counter fever-reducing medicines to soothe the sick.

Today, as it has begun loosening one of the world’s strictest lockdowns, France has become a case study in how some countries are now reconsidering their dependence on global supply chains built during the past two decades on the mantra of low costs and quick delivery. Even now, France has no guarantees that it can secure enough supplies in the coming weeks to protect against a potential second wave of the virus.
ImageWaiting at a medical center testing patient for the coronavirus in Paris in March. France couldn’t carry out large-scale testing because it lacked cotton swabs and reagents, low-value but crucial elements that had been outsourced to Asia.



“In times of crisis, we can no longer switch from one production zone to another to get our essential products,” Louis Gautier, the former director of the General Secretariat for Defense and National Security, a powerful inter-ministerial unit inside the prime minister’s office that coordinates the response to large-scale crises, said in an interview. “The issue of strategic stocks and secure supplies has to be reconsidered. A new model has to be invented.”

France had long identified masks as indispensable in a pandemic yet the government had mostly stopped stockpiling them during the past decade, mainly for budgetary reasons. Domestic production collapsed at the same time the country’s pharmaceutical industry was also moving overseas.

France had decided “that it was no longer necessary to keep massive stocks in the country, considering that production plants were able to be operational very quickly, especially in China,” the health minister, Olivier Véran, said in Parliament in March.

But the scope and speed of the coronavirus defied that logic. Still reeling from its own outbreak, China, the world’s leading maker of masks, was overwhelmed with orders. India, a top exporter of medication, temporarily banned exports for fear of shortages.

As the globalized supply chain broke down, French health officials lost critical time as the national government — as well as cities, towns and even wards — scrambled to buy supplies directly from China and elsewhere. The government organized highly publicized airlifts of masks from China, betraying both its desperation and its dependence.

France has suffered more than 27,000 deaths and one of the world’s highest fatality rates, 60 percent greater than in the United States.

“We will have to rebuild France’s agricultural, health, industrial and technological independence,” Mr. Macron said in a recent address.

To many critics, France’s defenselessness in face of the virus was the logical conclusion of the hollowing out of France’s manufacturing base — a transformation that has deepened inequality and fueled violent protests, like the Yellow Vest movement.

In the early 2000s, Germany had a slight edge over France in manufacturing and exporting PCR test kits — the most widely used today to detect the virus — and oxygen therapy equipment, according to United Nations data. But by 2018, Germany had a $1.4 billion trade surplus for PCR test kits whereas France had a deficit of $89 million.

While Germany was able to quickly mobilize its industry to fight the pandemic, France was paralyzed. It couldn’t carry out large-scale testing because it lacked cotton swabs and reagents, low-value but crucial elements that had been outsourced to Asia.

“France has deindustrialized too much since the 2000s — it’s paying for it today,” said Philippe Aghion, an economist who teaches at Harvard and Collège de France.

In a still unpublished study, Mr. Aghion and economists at the Free University of Brussels found that over all, countries with the capacity to manufacture test kits and related instruments, like Germany and Austria, had so far suffered fewer deaths during the pandemic.

In France, shortages have affected even basic goods. Drugstores ran out of thermometers. Supplies of paracetamol — a common pain reliever sold as Tylenol in the United States — became so dangerously low that the authorities restricted its sale.
Image
Waiting outside a pharmacy in Paris in March. Shortages have affected even basic goods, with drugstores running out of thermometers and supplies of paracetamol becoming so dangerously low that the authorities restricted its sale.Credit...Dmitry Kostyukov for The New York Times

The last European factory producing the medication was in France, near the city of Lyon, but it closed in 2008, according to France’s National Academy of Pharmacy. The association has long warned of France’s growing dependence on foreign drugmakers, noting that 60 to 80 percent of active pharmaceutical ingredients in Europe are imported — compared with 20 percent three decades ago.

“Nothing has been done at the government level to stop this,” said Marie-Christine Belleville, a member of the academy.

Warnings, in fact, had been issued for years.

In the aftermath of the SARS pandemic in Asia in 2003, French officials analyzed the risks in a series of reports and built up a national stockpile of masks and other protective equipment manufactured by domestic suppliers — in keeping with a Gaullist tradition of maintaining a strong domestic defense industry that also exports Rafale fighter jets, submarines, minesweepers and frigates to the world.

In 2006, a government pandemic plan recommended a series of measures, including creating stockpiles of masks. A year earlier, France’s Health Ministry signed a five-year contract to buy 180 million masks a year that Bacou-Dalloz, then the biggest mask manufacturer in France, would produce at a factory in Plaintel, about 280 miles from Paris.

Details from the contract, a copy of which was obtained by The New York Times, reveal the government’s strategic thinking at the time. Securing a domestic supplier would help France avoid being “exclusively dependent on importations that would be disrupted in the context of a pandemic.”

The contract would ensure the government’s “renewal of its stockpile of masks” as older stocks reached their expiration date. And during a pandemic, the government could requisition the plant’s production.

The government order “monopolized the Plaintel factory’s entire production capacity,” said Jean-Jacques Fuan, a former director of the plant.

By 2008, the government issued a white paper that for the first time cited pandemics as a potential national threat, ranking it fourth behind terrorism, cyberwarfare and a ballistic missile attack.

“In the next 15 years, the arrival of a pandemic is possible,” the paper warned. It could be highly contagious and lethal, it said, and could come and go in waves for weeks or months.

But soon afterward, many politicians began criticizing the policy of stockpiling masks and medication as wasteful. About 383 million euros spent in 2009 on acquiring 44 million vaccinations against the H1N1 flu caused a political scandal after less than 9 percent of French people were vaccinated.

In 2013, the General Secretariat for Defense and National Security issued new pandemic directives emphasizing “overall savings” and reducing the importance of maintaining a stockpile. Surgical masks would be stocked, but not the more sophisticated FFP2 masks that, the report noted, cost 10 times as much.

The directives also transferred the responsibility — and costs — for securing and stockpiling masks to public and private employers. This contributed to the severe shortages that France has suffered in recent months, as government officials became less engaged on the issue.

Mr. Gautier, the former director of the general secretariat, said that the new directives had been intended to improve the distribution of masks by requiring employers, like hospitals, to stock them and to make them legally responsible for the protection of their employees.

But he acknowledged that “it would have been logical to transfer the credits and not only the costs to the employers. We should have also put in place measures of control to ensure that the reforms had been applied correctly.”

But the new policy also undermined France’s capacity to produce masks. Employers, now charged with procuring masks, naturally sought cheaper suppliers abroad.

And to save costs, the government placed large orders that only Chinese factories were able to satisfy, said Francis Delattre, a former senator whose 2015 report warned of the depletion of masks.

“Small French factories were losing orders,” Mr. Delattre said. “It was very dangerous to entrust only one or two Chinese conglomerates with the health protection of the country.”

And without its single government customer, the factory in Plaintel, which had once been running 24 hours a day, saw its business shrivel and eventually closed in 2018, Mr. Fuan said.

As expired masks were disposed of, France’s national stockpile shrank from 1.7 billion in 2009 to 150 million in March.

And as the “invisible enemy” began rampaging throughout France, the country that made some of the world’s most sophisticated military hardware in the world was unable to produce enough face masks.

“This crisis must lead us to consider health care as a strategic sector that should draw on a lot of what we do in defense,” said Arnaud Danjean, a European lawmaker.

“We weren’t armed for this,” he added.

中国からの攻勢の前にEUは結束を保つべき コロナ

瀕死のイタリアがドイツ、フランスに医療支援を求めたのに、けんもほろろに断った自分達の醜い歴史的事実を、早くも忘却している愚かなヨーロッパ人なのであった。

ドイツ、フランスが僅かな支援すら断ったから、仕方なく中国とロシアが支援したんですよ。

中国がコロナ発生を隠匿するか・しないかに一切関係なく、防疫できなければいけないのです。

中国の武漢感染症研究所には、フランス政府が資金拠出して設立され、米国やオーストラリアも資金と人材を提供していた。武漢研究所でコロナ研究をするよう持ちかけたのは米欧だった(爆)。

それだけではない。武漢でコロナが拡大しつつあった時に、米国は政府派遣していた科学者を武漢研究所から政治命令で撤収させていたことまで判明している。「武漢の状況がわからない」という発言自体が大嘘。米国は全て承知のうえで、その分野で一番適任の専門家をわざと撤収させた。

警察が、問題箇所に人員を配置していないという言い訳が許されるのかというくらい馬鹿げた話。同情するに値しない。

都合の悪い歴史は忘れ、他人のせいにすることだけは世界一得意な人たち。このような行為を繰り返しながら、世界を植民地支配してきたのでしょうね。



EU Foreign Affairs Chief Urges Bloc to Stay United, Claiming China May Cash in on Internal Division
06:13 GMT 17.05.2020
https://sputniknews.com/europe/202005171079329607-eu-foreign-affairs-chief-urges-bloc-to-stay-united-claiming-china-may-cash-in-on-internal-division/

Josep Borrell has touted China as a "partner" state, going on to stress the necessity of maintaing "collective discipline" so as to stand up to "superpowers".

EU foreign affairs chief Josep Borrell has urged member states not to allow China to take advantage of a diplomatic standoff between them in order to impose their "state-centric" stance.

In an article published in several European editions on Friday the Spanish politician lauded China as a "partner country", cautioning the 27 EU member states though that they must must "act jointly against superpowers" while "maintaining the necessary collective discipline".

Borrell expressed concern over Beijing repeatedly "telling the world" about the aid they've sent to other countries amid the raging coronavirus pandemic, while the EU has avoided the politicisation of their own pandemic efforts without "making a fuss" about the "extensive support it provided while hospitals in China were overloaded".

"The change in the EU's relations with China has accelerated in different phases since the outbreak of COVID-19", Borrell wrote in his opinion piece.

"The key point is that we should support each other and show international solidarity -- and the European Union has always shown how committed it is here -- but that we should avoid political capital from such help to beat", Borrell stressed.

The European Union, in the footsteps of the US, has claimed that China is shying away the limelight and deflecting blame from their role in the COVID-19 crisis, with Washington, for instance, accusing the world's second biggest economy of playing down from the very start the scale of the epidemic and its origins.

A recent European Union report alleged Beijing was intentionally spreading disinformation about the coronavirus outbreak, which was first reported to have happened in China. However, as per a Reuters report, Chinese officials were "very angry" about the EU tending to appease Washington by echoing Trump's criticisms of the Chinese authorities.

Dwelling on cooperation issues in his op-ed, Borrell insisted trust and reciprocity are crucial for moving forward in order to ensure EU-China relations do not crack during and after the healthcare crisis.

The op-ed came out the same day that Chinese President Xi Jinping held a telephone conversation with Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban in which the Chinese head of state affirmed they "support the United Nations and World Health Organisation in fighting the pandemic".

Xi assured the EU member state head that Beijing stands "ready to work with all countries" to rein in the spread of the novel virus, which has recently been reported to have re-emerged in China's Wuhan, with the authorities confirming a new cluster of infections there after the country eased lockdown measures in early April.

イギリス大使館内に「ベネズエラ再建室」を極秘設置 政府転覆活動

イギリスの新進気鋭ジャーナリストが、情報開示法に基づき外務省文書を入手したところ、在ベネズエラのイギリス大使館内に「ベネズエラ再建室」が極秘に設置され、イギリスの現職外相、元駐在大使らがメンバーとして名を連ね、人望のない自称ベネズエラ大統領Juan Guaidoをはじめベネズエラの反政府活動家らと「イギリスの利権保持について」頻繁に会合を重ねていることが暴露された。

1本目は記事原文、2本目は記者の発言。



Revealed: Secretive British unit planning for ‘reconstruction’ of Venezuela
John McEvoy
13th May 2020
https://www.thecanary.co/exclusive/2020/05/13/revealed-secretive-british-unit-planning-for-reconstruction-of-venezuela/
(リンク先に外務省文書のコピーあり)

Documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act have exposed a secretive Foreign Office unit aimed at the ‘reconstruction’ of Venezuela. The files also reveal private discussions between Venezuelan opposition figures and UK officials, detailing proposals for the promotion of British business after a planned coup.
UK support for coup attempt in Venezuela

Over the past 16 months, the UK government has consistently supported Venezuelan opposition figure Juan Guaidó’s attempts to topple the elected government of president Nicolás Maduro.

In late January 2019, for example, the UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO) urged the Bank of England to grant Guaidó access to £1.2bn of Venezuelan gold reserves.

The Department for International Development (DFID) has also pledged some £40m of ‘humanitarian assistance’ to Venezuela, but it has refused to reveal where this assistance is going.
‘Venezuela Reconstruction Unit’

In January 2020, Guaidó travelled to London to meet with UK government officials and shore up international support for his flailing efforts to overthrow the Venezuelan government.

Documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act offer details of his visit, and reveal the existence of a specialist unit within the FCO dedicated to the ‘reconstruction’ of Venezuela.

On his visit, Guaidó met with foreign secretary Dominic Raab, minister for the Americas Christopher Pincher, and director for the Americas Hugo Shorter.

Notably, the list also includes “Head [of the] Venezuela Reconstruction Unit, FCO”, John Saville. The existence of this unit has never been publicly acknowledged by either the FCO or Saville, who was formerly UK ambassador to Venezuela (2014-2017). Saville’s biography on the UK government’s website, for instance, bears no mention of the unit.

When asked what the purpose of the Venezuela Reconstruction Unit is and why its existence had not been revealed, an FCO spokesperson told The Canary:

The UK is committed to working with international partners to bring an end to the appalling crisis in Venezuela.

The FCO’s Venezuela Reconstruction Unit was set up in Autumn 2019 to coordinate a UK approach to international efforts to respond to the dire economic and humanitarian situation in Venezuela.

This response is virtually indistinguishable from UK government public messaging on Venezuela. Three weeks before Guaidó’s arrival, Saville shared an FCO statement declaring:

The United Kingdom underlines its support for interim constitutional President Guaidó and his efforts to lead Venezuela towards a peaceful and democratic resolution of the appalling crisis the country is facing [emphasis added].

Saville was a central figure in organising Guaidó’s visit and, by January 2020, plans were already underway for a violent incursion into Venezuela by US and Venezuelan mercenaries – a plan which, according to the US mercenary in charge, was signed off by Guaidó himself. Indeed, the full contract leaked to the Washington Post names Guaidó as “Commander in Chief” of the entire operation. Guaidó has denied involvement.

This was not the first scandal of its type. In February 2019, Guaidó was assisted over the Venezuelan border by a Colombian narco-paramilitary cartel before attending an ‘aid’ concert organised by Richard Branson. Funds raised by this concert were then reportedly embezzled by the Venezuelan opposition, and food packages were left to rot.

The UK government’s commitment to bringing “an end to the appalling crisis in Venezuela” through a secretive FCO unit thus seems, to put it lightly, insincere.

The existence of the unit also raises a more fundamental question: What business does the UK government have in the “reconstruction” of a sovereign nation? The people of Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, and Syria may have something to say about this.
‘Gang busters’

Private discussions surrounding Guaidó’s visit to London also reveal the importance that the FCO and Venezuelan opposition figures placed in sympathetic media attention.

On 17 January, an official notes that an unnamed media company in London “wants [Guaidó] to come into the office for a roundtable with their editors and they could do a special feature on the resurrection”.

Another unnamed official boasts on 21 January 2020 that: “This [visit] has gang busters”, meaning a massive impact: “Now CNN International wants to be squeezed in between BBC and FT.”

Private discussions with Guaidó’s UK representative

Another Freedom of Information request can reveal private discussions between Guaidó’s UK representative, Vanessa Neumann, and UK government officials.

“I would like to request a meeting with Secretary Raab, as soon as feasible,” Neumann wrote to FCO officials in July 2019:

I understand he was the FCO’s legal liaison to the ICC [International Criminal Court] for years, and his family background is almost identical to mine and Madeleine Albright’s

In July 2019, Neumann also described meeting former US secretary of state Madeleine Albright as “a dream come true for me: meeting my teenage idol… Now I hope to glean some of her wisdom to help me fight for Venezuela’s freedom.”

Journalist Glenn Greenwald has described Neumann’s “teenage idol” as “one of the most deranged and bloodthirsty warmongers to occupy a high government position in decades”. In 1996, for instance, Albright told PBS News that the deaths of “half a million [Iraqi] children” resulting from US economic sanctions were “worth it”.

The parallels with Venezuela are particularly concerning. Neumann consistently encourages “strong targeted sanctions” against Venezuela which, according to the Centre for Economic and Policy Research, “killed 40,000 people… between 2017 and 2018”. More recently, former UN human rights expert Alfred de Zayas estimated that this number likely exceeds 100,000.

In May 2019, Neumann wrote to FCO officials that she had “reached out to Rory Stewart at DFID for a meeting that will… sustain British business in Venezuela’s reconstruction [emphasis added]”. This suggests the very nature of British ‘reconstruction’ of Venezuela: garnering favourable conditions for British business. And one can only guess at what these “British business” interests might be within a country that reportedly sits on the world’s largest proven oil reserves.

Indeed, in September 2019, Neumann was reportedly secretly recorded “surrendering Venezuela’s claim to the disputed Essequibo region in exchange for political support from the UK government”.

Also in May 2019, meanwhile, Neumann privately encouraged the FCO to publicly “pronounce itself in support of our democratic forces, your partners… before my interview on BBC World Service to discuss the matter in one hour”.

Later the same day, Neumann was reassured by an FCO official that “the Foreign Secretary [Jeremy Hunt] has just tweeted” in support of Edgar Zambrano, who was charged with treason, conspiracy, civil rebellion, usurpation of responsibilities, criminal association, and public instigation to disobey the law after joining an armed coup attempt.

The private discussions between Neumann and FCO officials also entail “Venezuela debt restructuring” and a ‘new Venezuela military attaché’, though these conversations have been redacted almost entirely.

“We are consistent in our view that Maduro is illegitimate”, the FCO’s Latin America department head Nigel Baker assured Neumann in May 2019, “and in our support for Juan Guaido”.

“Excellent. Thank you, Nigel,” responded Neumann. “We appreciate your support, which is critical for us now and in our reconstruction.” Elsewhere, Neumann praises Britain’s “historic role in concepts of liberty and justice (I used to teach political philosophy, and particularly loved the British thinkers)”.
Asymmetrica

Neumann is also the CEO of Asymmetrica Limited, a “strategic communications” firm whose website dons quotes from Henry Kissinger.

Alongside Neumann, the names Alec Bierbauer and Michael Marks were listed in 2015 as co-directors of Asymmetrica. Both are closely connected to the US military and intelligence services. Bierbauer was a central figure in the development of Washington’s drone warfare programme. Marks, meanwhile, “has worked around the world within the US intelligence and special operations community, a career that stretches from the jungles of Nicaragua to the mountains of Afghanistan”.

In 2018, Bierbauer and Marks published a book entitled Predator Rising: How a Team of Renegades Broke Rules, Shattered Barriers, and Launched a Drone Warfare Revolution. The book offers “the inside story of how a CIA agent and an Air Force officer joined forces to develop America’s most powerful tool in the War on Terror”.

In this light, Asymmetrica’s name appears to be a reference to the Asymmetrical Wafare strategies developed after 11 September 2001, and now being exported to Venezuela.

As Guaidó’s UK representative, Neumann’s proximity to people connected to the CIA and US armed forces is likely to raise eyebrows. Indeed, in 2017, Neumann told then-CIA director Mike Pompeo that “regime change [in Venezuela] looks to be – we hope – imminent or spiralling down”.

Curiously, Asymmetrica recently partnered with a California-based loan firm, offering loans to US-based businesses worth up to $5m. This seems to be quite a departure from typical ‘ambassadorial’ duties, particularly given these loans are offered exclusively to US companies. Neumann’s latest venture also raises questions regarding the collection of funds for the Venezuelan opposition, which has long been an issue clouded by murky waters.

Asymmetrica did not respond to a request for comment. Nor did Neumann.
UK contribution to coup efforts

The existence of a secretive Venezuela Reconstruction Unit within the FCO, combined with the FCO’s private discussions with Guaidó’s UK representative, seems to demonstrate the extent to which the UK government is committed to the overthrow of the Venezuelan government.

These documents also suggest that ‘regime change’ in Venezuela is following the typical procedure: the countries that contribute most during the destabilisation phase can expect to share the financial spoils in the ‘reconstruction’ phase.



Secret Unit in UK Foreign Office Working With Venezuelan Coup Plotters Exposed by Indy Journalist
Opinion
07:00 GMT 15.05.2020
by Mohamed Elmaazi
https://sputniknews.com/analysis/202005151079303943-secret-unit-in-uk-foreign-office-working-with-venezuelan-coup-plotters-exposed-by-indy-journalist/