シリア中銀総裁:ドルが全く使えない 「ベルトを締める必要」

マイヤーラ中央銀行総裁のインタビュー。制裁とデモでますます困難になるだろう。我々はベルトを締めなければならない。

一番打撃を受けたのは観光産業で、収入は90%減った。運輸、輸入、工業・・・全てに徐々に影響してくる。失業と貧困が増える。

私は、「パンが無ければケーキを食べればいいのに」と言ったマリー・アントワネットと、逆のことを言う。我々はケーキをあきらめ、ライ麦パンを食べなければならない。

米国制裁の影響で、8月23日(火)以降、米ドルが使えなくなった。完全にユーロ建てに転換した。政府は2005年からユーロ建てを勧めてきたが、実際には多くがまだドル建てで取り引きしている。今やドル建ては完全に止まった。これは国が始まって以来の出来事だ。

米国とEUは、口ではシリア国民を苦しめたくないと言うが、実際に影響を受けるのは、体制ではなく国民である。物価が上がるので、最貧困層が一番打撃を受ける。

今の外準は177億ドルある。3月半ばに反政府デモが始まったときから8億ドル減っただけ。

シリポンの対ドル・レートは、公式47.69に対し、闇レートは50.4で、安定している。政府が2年前に、為替変動対策基金を設立して、対応しているからだ。基金には50億ドルあり、うち20億ドルを使った。

イランがシリアに60億ドル支援したというニュースは、事実ではない。

事件後、20億ドルが国外に逃避した。

反政府デモが始まったら、(シリア人名義の預金という意味だと思うが)300億シリポン(6億ドル)が引き出されたが、その後240億シリポン(4.8億ドル)が戻ってきた。流出したのは60億シリポン(1.2億ドル)に過ぎない。

我々は中国の支援で問題を解決することができる。もしヨーロッパがシリアから引いても、中国がすぐに空白を埋める。ロシアも支援するかもしれない。

・・・中国とは既に話が付いているような話しぶり。危ない橋を渡っていることは否定できない。



Syrians must tighten belts as sanctions bite: banker

http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Business/Middle-East/2011/Aug-26/Syrians-must-tighten-belts-as-sanctions-bite-banker.ashx
August 26, 2011 02:42 PM
By Sammy Ketz
Agence France Presse

DAMASCUS: Syrians will have to tighten their belts if protests against President Bashar Assad remain unabated and U.S. and European sanctions bite, the country's top banker told AFP in an interview.

"It will be more and more difficult because of sanctions and the events. We will have to tighten our belts," said Adib Mayaleh, the governor of Syria's Central Bank.

"The main hit has been to the tourism industry where revenues have fallen by 90 percent, and the ordinary citizen will suffer. Transport, imports, industry ... all will be increasingly affected, and this will create unemployment and poverty."

Mayaleh, 55, who holds a doctorate in economics from the University of Aix en Provence in southern France, has been the central bank head for six years.

"I say the opposite of Marie Antoinette who said that if the French have no bread they should eat cake. I think we will have to give up the cake to eat brown bread," he said.

US sanctions had forced Syria to stop all transactions in U.S. dollars since Tuesday, and the country had turned completely to euro deals, Mayaleh said.

"Since 2005 we have encouraged all economic sectors to conduct transactions in euros, but unfortunately many still used dollars," he said.

"Now it is completely stopped. This is the first time in the history of the country."

U.S. President Barack Obama has called for the resignation of Assad and recently imposed tough sanctions against the regime in Damascus.

In an executive order last week he ordered the freezing of all Syrian state assets in the United States and forbade investment and exports to the country.

The order also targets Syria's oil and gas sector, a key revenue stream for Assad's regime, significantly ramping up pressure on Damascus to halt its assault on pro-democracy protests.

European Union governments too formally adopted new sanctions on Tuesday, but stopped short of concrete moves to impose a full oil embargo on Damascus.

Some 90 percent of Syrian crude oil is exported to the EU, where the main buyers are Denmark, Italy, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Spain, in that order.

"The sanctions punish all Syrians, especially the most vulnerable," Mayaleh said. The US and EU "are talking through their hats when they say they don't want to punish the people.

"They are the only ones who are affected, not the regime. The poorest are hit by rising prices caused by the embargoes."

Mayaleh said Syria's monetary reserves currently stand at $17.7 billion, or $800 million down from mid-March when the anti-Assad protest movement erupted.

"The exchange rate of the Syrian pound has remained more or less stable. This has been our main goal since the start of the crisis," he said.

"The dollar is at 50.4 Syrian pounds on the parallel market, while the official rate is 47.69."

He dismissed reports that Iran had transferred six billion dollars to support the Syrian pound.

"This is a joke. It's ridiculous," Mayaleh said.

Explaining the stability of the local currency, he said Syria had created two years ago "a fund for currency fluctuations and foreign exchange positions of banks."

The fund stood at "around $5 billion when the crisis started and we have spent two billion to protect our currency."

He also said that some $2 billion had been transferred out of Syria in the past five months.

As for bank deposits, "at the start of the crisis withdrawals hit 30 billion Syrian pounds ($600 million), but after two months 24 billion ($480 million) have returned to the bank, so there is a difference of 6 billion which is normal as people want to hold cash with them."

Mayaleh finished by issuing a warning to Europe.

"We can solve our problems with the help of China. If the Europeans withdraw, the Chinese can easily take their place and fill the void. Russia may also aid us," he said.

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