サウジ:ファトワ発布を制限する勅令 政府寄り学者に限定

イスラムのイメージを損ねるファトワの発布を防ぐため、若干の例外を除き、すべてのファトワは、ファトワ局に勤める政府お抱えのイスラム学者しか発することができない。

若干の例外事項とは、礼拝の仕方、寄付の仕方など初歩的なイスラム教育。

イスラムのイメージを損ねるファトワの例は、テロ関係に加え、以下のようなもの。

「男女混在の職場で働く人は殺してよい」
「女が大人の男に授乳した場合は、二人は男女混在の部屋で働いてよい」(笑)
「女が保護者なしで旅行してよい」
「出不精の男は、モスクへ行かずとも自宅で礼拝すればよい」
「誕生日を祝ってよろしい」

勅令を出すのは簡単だが、こうなると問題になってくるのは、一般国民はどうやってファトワ局にコンタクトするかということだ。

お腹が痛くて医者に行った患者が、処方された薬を持って坊さんのところへいき、「お腹が痛くて医者へ行ったら、この薬を処方された。自分はこれは飲んでいいのでしょうか?」と質問する人達だ。質問したいことは毎日沢山あるのに、受け付ける人が身近にいない。ファトワ局の電話はいつも話し中。ストレスが貯まる(笑)。

あと、理屈っぽい人達だから、王権でファトワを発する権利を制限できるのかといった根本の議論を吹きかけてくる人もいるに違いない。



Fatwas only by senior scholars: King

By FATIMA SIDYA | ARAB NEWS
arabnews.com/saudiarabia/article101095.ece
Published: Aug 12, 2010 23:52 Updated: Aug 12, 2010 23:52

JEDDAH: Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah has issued a royal order saying only approved scholars can issue fatwas (religious edicts).

"As part of our religious and national duty we want you to ensure that fatwas are only issued by members of the Council of Senior Religious Scholars and other permitted people," King Abdullah said in the decree that was sent Thursday to Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdul Aziz Al-Asheikh, who heads the Presidency for Scholastic Research and Religious Edicts (Dar Al-Ifta) as well as the scholars council.

The decree also asked Al-Asheikh to report to the king on those fully qualified and eligible to issue fatwas.

"Individual fatwas on personal matters such as matters of worship, dealings, personal matters are exempt from this ruling, but they should be between the questioner and the scholar. There should be a total ban on any topics involving strange or obsolete views."

The king said the issuing of fatwas by unqualified persons was a violation of Islamic teachings.

"We have observed the fallout from unqualified people issuing fatwas. It is our religious duty to stop them in order to preserve our religion, which is our dearest possession, and cut off an evil which, if we do not tackle now, will return with added force." the king added in the decree.

"Religion is no place for bragging nor seeking worldly ambitions."

The king said differences of opinion among scholars should be confined to their own circles and not involve other people.

"We find some people undermining the role of official establishments and crossing into state jurisdiction. They pose as eligible scholars to dispute these religious establishments," he added.

"This situation has prompted us to face them with determination in order to return them to the right path and make them understand the great role played by our religious establishments."

Islamic Affairs Minister Saleh Al-Asheikh had warned earlier that many fatwas issued by individuals recently had lacked balance.

They include giving permission to kill men and women who share workspaces or, more bizarrely, allowing them to work together if a woman breastfeeds her male colleagues.

"They should not publish fatwas before consulting other experts," he said.

The minister also told members of the public to only ask for fatwas from authentic sources, including Dar Al-Ifta.

He said he had noticed scholars issuing fatwas on silly issues.

"This will give a bad impression about the Kingdom, especially with it being an Islamic state. We have so many other important issues to deal with. We have to confront terrorism and the false allegations people make connecting Islam and its Prophet (peace be upon him) with terrorism," he said.

Other fatwas, including giving permission for women to travel without a legal guardian, allowing men to pray at home instead of going to mosque and allowing people to celebrate birthdays have triggered heated debates among religious scholars.

A number of leading sheikhs welcomed King Abdullah's decision.

Sheikh Abdullah Al-Muslih, who hosts a fatwa program on a religious channel, said major issues requiring a fatwa should remain in the hands of top scholars.

However, he added that personal matters such as how to pray, perform ablution or pay zakah were considered as educating the public and therefore exempt from the decree.

Sheikh Saleh Al-Shamrani, a teacher at the Scholarly Institute for Islamic Studies, also agreed with the king's decree and said it would curb outlandish fatwas during Ramadan.

"Lately, some people have had the nerve to issue random fatwas. Some of them have little religious education, while others claim they are scholars. It is time to return fatwas to qualified people who are fit to issue them," he said.

"We have waited for this decision, especially as religious channels host people belonging to different intellectual schools of thought and the public might see their beliefs as the truth."

Shaikh Abdul Muhsin Al-Obaikan, an adviser to the Royal Council who recently called for a minimum marriage age for girls, refused to comment when contacted by Arab News.

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